General Information for NASA Allocated Observing Time on the Keck Telescopes

FAQ Page

Application Procedures (page limits, proposal content, etc)

Highlights for 2014B

1) General Proposals for the Use of Keck to Observe Kepler Targets

2) Data taken with ALL instruments are now included in the Keck Observatory Archive

3) Mission support letters must be requested from NASA HQ at least two weeks before submission deadline (i.e. by March 5)

4) Note restricted Keck 1 time during summer months. See here for more information.

Table of Contents

I. Guidelines for Allocation of NASA Keck Telescope Time

II. Proposals in Support of NASA Space Missions

III. Multi-Semester Proposals and Applying for Partial Nights

IV. Publication Acknowledgement

V. Target of Opportunity Proposals

VI. Application Procedures

VII. Data Proprietary Periods

VIII. Remote Observing

I. Guidelines for Allocation of NASA Keck Telescope Time

NASA announces a call for proposals to use its share of observing time at the W. M. Keck Observatory. This call for semester 2014B (August 1, 2014 — January 31, 2015) will allocate 38 nights of observing, with planned allocations of 17 nights on Keck 1 and 21 nights on Keck 2, distributed evenly across dark, grey, and bright time. Proposals were due on Thursday, March 20, 2014 at 4pm PDT and should be submitted via the online submission page.

Ia. Strategic Use of NASA Keck Time

NASA intends the use of its time allocation on the Keck telescopes to be highly strategic in support of on-going missions and/or high priority, long-term science goals. The NASA Keck time is not generally intended to be a substitute for the ground based support for individual projects now provided through the National Optical Astronomical Observatory (NOAO) which offers time on NOAO's 4 m telescopes as well as the Gemini 8 m telescopes. This joint NASA-NOAO time is allocated through processes associated with each NASA mission's proposal cycle (e.g. HST, Spitzer, Chandra, GLAST).

The scientific areas in which proposals are solicited are:

  1. Investigations in support of Exoplanet Exploration science goals and missions
  2. Investigations in support of Cosmic Origins science goals and missions
  3. Investigations in support of Physics of the Cosmos science goals and missions
  4. Investigations of our own Solar System

Direct mission support proposals in any of these scientific areas are also encouraged.

NASA's long term research goals are described in the NASA Strategic Plan.

The goals of the Exoplanet Exploration Program are described in several documents, including the May 2008 report of the Exoplanet Task force to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory committee. Please note that only proposals regarding observation of exoplanets should be declared as Exoplanet Exploration.

With the release of public data from Kepler, NASA is now accepting general proposals for the use of the Keck telescopes in support of observations of Kepler targets. More information about this limited time is below.

Cosmic Origins (COR) Science comprises projects that enable the study of how stars and galaxies came into being, how they evolve, and ultimately how they end their lives. COR topics include stars, star formation, circumstellar disks, galaxies/AGN, and galaxy formation as described in the NASA Strategic Plan as well as in other NASA material.

Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) contains missions that can explore the most extreme physical conditions of the universe, from black holes to dark energy. PCOS topics include cosmology, high-energy astrophysics and fundamental physics as described in the NASA Strategic Plan as well as in other NASA material.

Proposers should base their science case in terms of strategic relevance toward achieving one or more of NASA's goals for the Exoplanet Exploration, Cosmic Origins, Physics of the Cosmos, or Solar System programs. During the review process, a numerical grade will be assigned for strategic relevance and given significant weight. Proposals may be reassigned to a different science area if deemed appropriate.

Examples of previous strategic projects with the NASA Keck time include the eta-Earth survey and the KI Nulling Exo-zodiacal Dust Survey, both of which are in direct support of the goals of NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program. Programs requiring many nights of Keck time over multiple semesters (up to 4 semesters) may be submitted in response to this call, but must explicitly and strongly justify their strategic connection to the stated goals.

Within these broad guidelines, the allocation of time will be made based on scientific merit, strategic importance, availability of resources, and the uniqueness of Keck's capabilities for the particular investigation. All proposals for use of NASA Keck time will be evaluated by a panel of scientists comprising the NASA Keck Telescope Allocation Committee (NASA/Keck TAC). The TAC process will be administered by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI). In recognition of the science communities that the NASA Keck time is expected to serve, TAC members are selected to assure balanced expertise in the areas of exoplanets, objects in our own solar system, and in support of NASA's Cosmic Origins and Physics of the Cosmos goals. NASA's solicitation of proposals and their evaluation by the NASA Keck TAC will be phased so as to provide the evaluation and ranking of proposals needed to meet the telescope scheduling requirements set by the Director of the Keck Observatory.

Ib. Specifics for 2014B

Ib.i. General Proposals for the Use of Keck Time to Observe Kepler Targets

Starting in 2011A and continuing in future semesters, there will be limited time available on the Keck telescopes to make single semester observations of targets based on Kepler data. Due to the scheduling constraints imposed by the successful Kepler Key Science Projects from 2013B, the total amount of time available for the smaller single-semester proposals is limited to no more than 2 nights on Keck I. However, there are no specific limitations on the number of nights on Keck II. All proposals for observing Kepler targets must follow the guidelines detailed below:

Ib.ii. Data taken with all instruments are now included in the Keck Observatory Archive

Ib.iii. Mission support letters must be requested from NASA HQ at least two weeks before submission deadline (i.e. by March 5)

Ib.iv. Restricted Keck 1 time during summer months.

Ic. Procedure

The opportunity to propose as Principal Investigators (PIs) for the NASA time on the Keck Telescopes is open to all U.S.-based astronomers ("U.S.-based astronomers" have their principal affiliation at a U.S. institution).

Proposals from PIs, or any Co-Is, who have access to the Keck telescopes through other means (the University of California, Caltech, Yale, Keck Observatory, Swinburne, and the University of Hawaii) should indicate in their proposals specifically how they are using any other Keck telescope time they have been awarded within the last two years for the proposed project and why their research requires time beyond the allocations available through their institutions. The TAC may use access to non-NASA Keck time as one of the factors in determining the final grades and rankings of the proposals. For example, the ability to achieve the science objectives with and without NASA time could be either a positive or a negative factor. If the NASA time provides only a small fraction (<<50%) of the observing time needed to complete a project, the TAC might conclude that the NASA time is not crucial to the completion of scientific goals and such a proposal may receive a lower ranking in comparison to a proposal which completes its goals within the NASA allocation. However, if the PI can leverage access to NASA and non-NASA time to address science goals aligned with NASA's strategic goals that could not be addressed with NASA time alone, the proposal could receive a higher ranking. In the case of two proposals ranked equally on scientific and technical merit, the TAC might use access to additional Keck time (as described above) as one of the factors in determining the final ranking. Other factors which the TAC may use are listed below in the specific points which proposals must address.

To maximize the scientific return of NASA's investment in Keck, NExScI will, when possible, work with other TACs which distribute federally-funded Keck time to ensure that the same proposal submitted to two different TACs in the same semester is not allocated more total time than needed in the judgment of the respective TACs to conduct the proposed science.

Proposals received by the application deadline will be reviewed and ranked by the NASA Keck TAC. The TAC will then submit their recommendations to the selecting official, the NExScI Executive Director, for final selection. NExScI will then coordinate these final selections with the Keck Observatory for scheduling.

The scientific case for observing time should establish three things:

  1. Outline the scientific problem(s) or question(s) toward whose solution the observations are requested, and place these questions in the larger scientific context.
  2. Show how the measurements requested will be used to illuminate these questions or problems.
  3. Demonstrate how the proposed science fits into NASA's strategic goals for its Keck time as listed above. (Please note that a numerical grade will be assigned for strategic relevance.)

The technical case should demonstrate that the proposed measurements are technically feasible, given the performance of the proposed instrument(s), in the time requested and that the proposal team has the requisite expertise to make the observations and reduce the data in a timely manner. Mission support proposals must include additional supporting materials as stated in the next section. The number of target objects required should be justified.

All applications must include complete lists of the objects to be observed, their magnitudes and their approximate equatorial coordinates (sufficient to determine scheduling within the semester). Applications without such lists will be rejected.

Specific points that must be addressed include:

II. Proposals in Support of NASA Space Missions

The NASA Keck TAC occasionally receives observing proposals stating that the proposed observations provide critical and timely support for approved NASA space missions. In this case, "critical" refers to NASA Keck data meeting one or more of the following criteria:

  1. Essential to achieving Level 1 Requirements of the mission, e.g. Kepler follow-up at Keck being essential to validate and characterize planet candidates, validating WISE completeness/reliability right after launch, gather data during LCROSS lunar impact;
  2. Essential to important mission planning activities including those affecting the health, safety, and risk mitigation of NASA assets, e.g. looking for potentially harmful moons/rings orbiting Pluto that might endanger New Horizons;
  3. Parallel/coordinated observations with NASA assets required for time critical events and/or for independent validation and verification of the space mission data, e.g. to support SOFIA observations of Pluto multiple occultations;
  4. Longer term mission planning, e.g. looking for Kuiper Belt objects that New Horizons might fly to after Pluto.

The TAC accepts these Mission Support Proposals and evaluates them on the basis of their scientific merit just as any proposal. However, the NASA Keck selecting official, the NExScI Executive Director, will take the TAC evaluation and programmatic concerns into consideration in making the final time assignments.

All proposals submitted under the mission support category must include all of the following:

  1. A formal justification for the current semester, in writing, from the flight project, e.g., Project Scientist, Project Manager, or Principal Investigator, including an explanation of the criticality and timeliness of the proposed observations as identified in criteria 1-4 of this section.
  2. A written endorsement for the current semester from the NASA Headquarters Keck project scientist, Dr. Hashima Hasan ( These letters must be requested from NASA Headquarters no less than 10 business days before the proposal due date (i.e. by March 5, 2014).
  3. Clear evidence that the project requires the 10-m Keck Telescopes

Since the strong support of your letter writers is critical to deciding whether or not your proposal meets Mission Support criteria, contact the relevant flight project lead as well as Dr. Hasan at NASA HQ well before the proposal submission deadline.

These items must either be included in the proposal package or sent directly to the NASA Keck Operations Scientist, Dr. Dawn Gelino ( by the proposal due date. Omission of any of these items will eliminate a proposal from consideration in the mission support category. Such proposals will be evaluated along with the general proposal pool without special consideration for programmatic impact.

III. Multi-Semester Proposals and Applying for Partial Nights

Principal investigators are allowed to submit proposals that span up to 4 semesters. The intent of allowing PIs this option is to reduce workload on both PIs and the NASA Keck TAC for long-term programs. The NASA Keck TAC will be instructed to consider these proposals in light of all of the criteria that apply for single semester proposals, in addition to the following considerations:

In considering multi-semester proposals, the TAC may recommend accepting the proposal in its entirety, for some subset of the proposed semesters, or reject it outright.

NASA has allocated a number of nights in semesters 2013B-2015A (outside of those for the general call noted above) for the selected Kepler Key Science programs. Due to this strategic allocation, only programs ranked very highly in both scientific relevance and strategic importance will be considered for scheduling on Keck I during the months when the Kepler fields are visible (June-September). However, programs that can match half-nights in the HIRES mode on Keck I in May (semester A) and October (semester B) are strongly encouraged and should indicate this as a scheduling option. Note that half nights outside of these months are not encouraged.

Proposers should bear in mind that proposals requesting less than full nights must be scientifically and technically justified and can ordinarily be accommodated only if they can be combined with another selected NASA proposal requiring the same instrument in the same configuration. Observing modes that require substantial observatory support (e.g., Laser Guide Star) are more difficult to schedule as partial night observations. Due to the extreme difficulty in scheduling the telescope in smaller than 0.5 night increments, any program requesting such increments will be counted as 0.5 nights per calendar night and only scheduled if the program can be combined with another selected NASA proposal requiring the same instrument in the same configuration. Runs of more than several contiguous nights are also difficult to arrange and must be scientifically and technically justified.

IV. Publication Acknowledgement

All publications based on data acquired with the Keck telescopes and/or the Keck Observatory Archive should include the following acknowledgement(s):

WMKO Acknowledgement

"This work was supported by a NASA Keck PI Data Award, administered by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory from telescope time allocated to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the agency's scientific partnership with the California Institute of Technology and the University of California. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain."

KOA Acknowledgement

"This research has made use of the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA), which is operated by the W. M. Keck Observatory and the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration." Please also acknowledge the PI(s) of datasets that have been obtained through KOA. The Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) is a collaboration between the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) and the W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO). NExScI is sponsored by NASA's Origins Theme and Exoplanet Exploration Program, and operated by the California Institute of Technology in coordination with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)."

Please send a citation for any paper using either acknowledgement to the NASA Keck Operations Scientist, Dr. Dawn Gelino (

V. Target of Opportunity Proposals

The NASA TAC does consider target-of-opportunity (ToO) proposals. However, proposers should bear in mind that ToO observations are difficult to schedule and usually require rescinding or reducing the allocation of an already-scheduled NASA observer. ToO proposals for events likely to happen during a single semester (e.g. gamma-ray bursts, supernovae) must be submitted during the regular submission cycle so that the proposed observations may be considered by the TAC and potential scheduling opportunities can be discussed.

Only proposals that fit the case of a ToO observation of a truly extraordinary opportunity that could not have been anticipated prior to the regular proposal deadline may be submitted outside of the regular submission cycle by e-mail or FAX to:

Dr. Dawn Gelino
NASA Exoplanet Science Institute
770 S. Wilson Ave., MC 100-22
Pasadena, CA 91125
Fax: 626/397-7181

In general, NASA ToO proposals are only scheduled during NASA nights and so the chances of a ToO being accepted and scheduled are higher for instruments with high NASA usage. In the last few years, HIRES, NIRSPEC, MOSFIRE, and NIRC2 are commonly scheduled on NASA nights for at least 10 nights a semester and all other instruments for much less. Observing modes that require substantial observatory support (e.g., LGS) are more difficult to schedule as ToO observations.

Note that all ToO proposals must meet the strategic relevance guidelines described above.

VI. Application Procedures

Application Procedures

To submit your proposal, please follow the guidelines outlined on the Application Procedures page, and submit your proposal via the online submission page. Proposals are due on Thursday, March 20, 2014 by 4 pm PDT.

Proposal Support

Subject to the availability of funds, NASA will financially support the programs assigned time through this call for proposals. Principal investigators of programs assigned time will receive limited research and travel support contingent upon NASA Headquarters funding. Funding awards will be determined through formulaic means. NExScI will manage the Keck PI Data Awards and will contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to administer the disbursement of most of the funds. The funding instrument used by JPL will in most cases be in the form of a Research Support Agreement (RSA) depending on the size of the award and the nature of the PI's home institution. An RSA is a simple Fixed Price, Advance Paid, subcontract provided through JPL that is used for basic research funding where scientific reports and technical data are the only deliverables. RSAs can be awarded to educational and non-profit institutions. JPL is unable to issue grants. Proposers should not include any budget information in the proposal.

The only reporting necessary for RSAs is a final "end of contract" report outlining the work done and listing publications from the research. This report is required and is not optional. Failure to submit a final report in a timely manner may be grounds for rejection of observing proposals in subsequent years.

VII. Data Proprietary Periods

For a complete description of available instruments, see the Observing at WMKO page. Note that starting in 2013A, data taken with ALL instruments on the Keck telescopes are included in the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) with a default proprietary period of 18 months. Proposers must indicate the desired proprietary period on the WMKO cover sheet that is submitted with the proposal. Requests for extensions of this default proprietary period MUST be included in the proposal and be scientifically justified. All extensions must be approved by the NASA selecting official, NExScI Director, Dr. Charles Beichman.

VIII. Remote Observing

NASA Keck observers have direct access to two Remote Observing Facilities (ROFs) for their Keck observations. These ROFs are located at Caltech (Pasadena, CA) and at Yale University (New Haven, CT). Please note that other remote observing facilities are also available and NASA users with access to these facilities can use these; use of the Caltech or Yale ROF is not required of NASA Keck users wanting to observe remotely. NASA Keck observers who do want to make use of either ROF are required to follow the procedure described here. This approval process should be started no later than 5 weeks before the scheduled nights.

Web Curator and NExScI Cognizant Official: Dr. Dawn Gelino