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General Information for NASA Allocated Observing Time on the Keck Telescopes

FAQ Page

Highlights for 2013B

1) Kepler Key Science Proposals to be solicited in 2013B only

2) General Proposals for the Use of Keck to Observe Kepler Targets

3) Data taken with ALL instruments are now included in the Keck Observatory Archive

4) Proposals to observe comet C/2013 S1 (ISON)

5) Proposals to match Keck 2 comet nights encouraged

6) 2013B NIRSPEC Availability

Highlights for 2013A

1) Data taken with ALL instruments are now included in the Keck Observatory Archive.

2) MOSFIRE and OSIRIS are now available on Keck I.

3) The CoRoT Key Science project is now completed. General PI proposals are still being accepted.

4) The Keck Interferometer is no longer available.

5) General Proposals for the Use of Keck to Observe Public Kepler Targets

6) Addition of Co-I Institutions to NExScI Cover Page

Table of Contents

I. Guidelines for Allocation of NASA Keck Telescope Time

II. Proposals in Support of NASA Space Missions

III. Multi-Semester Proposals and Applying for Partial Nights

IV. Publication Acknowledgement

V. Target of Opportunity Proposals

VI. Application Procedures

VII. Data Proprietary Periods

VIII. Remote Observing

I. Guidelines for Allocation of NASA Keck Telescope Time

NASA announces a call for proposals to use its share of observing time at the W. M. Keck Observatory. This call for semester 2013B (August 1, 2013 — January 31, 2014) will allocate 40 nights of observing, with planned allocations for non-Key Science Propsals of 14 nights on Keck 1 and 26 nights on Keck 2, distributed evenly across dark, grey, and bright time. Proposals are due on Thursday, March 14, 2013 at 4pm PDT and should be submitted via the online submission page.

Ia. Strategic Use of NASA Keck Time

NASA intends the use of its time allocation on the Keck telescopes to be highly strategic in support of on-going missions and/or high priority, long-term science goals. The NASA Keck time is not generally intended to be a substitute for the ground based support for individual projects now provided through the National Optical Astronomical Observatory (NOAO) which offers time on NOAO's 4 m telescopes as well as the Gemini 8 m telescopes. This joint NASA-NOAO time is allocated through processes associated with each NASA mission's proposal cycle (e.g. HST, Spitzer, Chandra, GLAST).

The scientific areas in which proposals are being solicited are:

  1. Investigations in support of Exoplanet Exploration science goals and missions
  2. Investigations in support of Cosmic Origins science goals and missions
  3. Investigations in support of Physics of the Cosmos science goals and missions
  4. Investigations of our own Solar System
  5. Direct mission support

NASA's long term research goals are described in the NASA Strategic Plan.

The goals of the Exoplanet Exploration Program are described in several documents, including the May 2008 report of the Exoplanet Task force to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory committee. Please note that only proposals regarding observation of exoplanets should be declared as Exoplanet Exploration.

With the release of public data from Kepler, NASA is now accepting general proposals for the use of the Keck telescopes in support of observations of Kepler targets. More information about this limited time is below.

Cosmic Origins (COR) Science comprises projects that enable the study of how stars and galaxies came into being, how they evolve, and ultimately how they end their lives. COR topics include stars, star formation, circumstellar disks, galaxies/AGN, and galaxy formation as described in the NASA Strategic Plan as well as in other NASA material.

Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) contains missions that can explore the most extreme physical conditions of the universe, from black holes to dark energy. PCOS topics include cosmology, high-energy astrophysics and fundamental physics as described in the NASA Strategic Plan as well as in other NASA material.

Proposers should base their science case in terms of strategic relevance toward achieving one or more of NASA's goals for the Exoplanet Exploration, Cosmic Origins, Physics of the Cosmos, or Solar System programs. During the review process, a numerical grade will be assigned for strategic relevance and given significant weight. Proposals may be reassigned to a different science area if deemed appropriate.

Examples of previous strategic projects with the NASA Keck time include the eta-Earth survey and the KI Nulling Exo-zodiacal Dust Survey, both of which are in direct support of the goals of NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program. Programs requiring many nights of Keck time over multiple semesters (up to 4 semesters) may be submitted in response to this call, but must explicitly and strongly justify their strategic connection to the stated goals.

Within these broad guidelines, the allocation of time will be made based on scientific merit, strategic importance, availability of resources, and the uniqueness of Keck's capabilities for the particular investigation. All proposals for use of NASA Keck time will be evaluated by a panel of scientists comprising the NASA Keck Telescope Allocation Committee (NASA/Keck TAC). The TAC process will be administered by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI). In recognition of the science communities that the NASA Keck time is expected to serve, TAC members are selected to assure balanced expertise in the areas of exoplanets, objects in our own solar system, and in support of NASA's Cosmic Origins and Physics of the Cosmos goals. NASA's solicitation of proposals and their evaluation by the NASA Keck TAC will be phased so as to provide the evaluation and ranking of proposals needed to meet the telescope scheduling requirements set by the Director of the Keck Observatory.

Ib. Specifics for 2013B

Ib.i. Kepler Key Science Projects

The primary goal of the Kepler mission is to identify Earth-sized planets orbiting in the habitable zones of solar type stars. While Kepler finds many planet candidates using the transit method, confirmation of these candidates as bona-fide planets is essential to rule out a variety of other astrophysical phenomena that can produce "false positives" in the Kepler data. In some cases, internal data alone, such as Transit Timing Variations, can provide confirmation, but in many other cases confirmation must come from ground-based follow-up observations. Since the launch of Kepler in 2009, the Keck telescopes have been used by the Kepler Mission to provide precision radial velocity data for candidate validation, mass determination and stellar characterization, as well as Adaptive Optics imaging for additional candidate validation.

During Kepler's prime mission phase, NASA set aside 10 nights of Keck time per semester for Kepler follow-up activities to be conducted by the Kepler Project. Coinciding with the transition of Kepler into its Extended Mission phase and starting in 2013B, NASA will maintain an allocation of 10 nights/semester available for Kepler follow-up, but these nights will now be competitively selected through this call for Kepler Key Project proposals. The details of this Kepler Key Project call are given in subsequent sections. Note that this call for Kepler Key Projects will not be repeated until 2015B. All multi-semester project time will be allocated during this call. A Time Allocation Committee (TAC) convened by NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) will evaluate the Key Project proposals. The TAC may recommend more than 10 nights for the Key Projects, depending on requested instruments, and overall scheduling constraints at the Keck Observatory. In addition to the 10-night allocation for Key Projects, single-semester Kepler projects on any topic may be submitted for this and future Keck semesters (see section D).

Multi-semester Key Programs

Validation and characterization of Kepler candidates demand long term program(s) given the need to measure signatures over one or more orbital periods. For certain kinds of observations objects must be observed over many nights to build up sufficient orbital coverage. For the 10 night set-aside, Key Science programs must focus on Kepler's exoplanet goals:

  1. Determine the abundance of terrestrial and larger planets in or near the habitable zone of a wide variety of stars;
  2. Determine the distribution of sizes and shapes of the orbits of these planets;
  3. Estimate how many planets there are in multiple-star systems;
  4. Determine the variety of orbit sizes and planet reflectivities, sizes, masses and densities of short-period giant planets;
  5. Identify additional members of each discovered planetary system using other techniques; and
  6. Determine the properties of those stars that harbor planetary systems.

Observers should detail in their proposals the expected limiting precision of their observations, the details of the target sample (planet and stellar characteristics, relevant ancillary data, sample size, etc.), their observing strategy and observing cadence, and demonstrate their capability to reduce the data in a timely manner at the required level of precision. Specific compelling rationales linking the proposed observational results to an improved understanding of the astrophysics of planetary systems, e.g. the distribution of planets in mass and radius and orbital properties, or the internal structure and evolution of individual planets, will be considered a significant strength.

We anticipate that the majority of the requested time may be for HIRES, but time could also be requested for Adaptive Optics imaging as part of a program to reject false positives, or for other instruments for stellar or planetary characterization. Proposals should request long-term status and propose for time in at least two semesters, but in no more than four semesters. The Keck telescopes will be scheduled for only whole or half nights for the purpose of this call. Proposers should discuss the efficiency of their program in terms of filling their proposed telescope time.

Both large and small multi-semester programs will be considered. Successful programs will be granted multi-semester status for up to four semesters (2013B-2015A). Time for the second year's observations will be allocated upon receipt of an annual report detailing progress to date. Renewals for a third year and/or solicitation for new Key Projects will be entertained in an additional call for semesters 2015B and beyond. As described in section D, single-semester proposals for all Kepler-related science will continue to be accepted as part of the standard NASA Keck call.

A. Deliverables for Key Projects

All raw data will go public through the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) after the standard 18-month proprietary period (see section VII below). Requests for a shorter proprietary period may be considered by the TAC in their deliberations. Requests for longer proprietary periods will not be accepted for these Key Project data.

The Kepler Project and NExScI have established a Community Follow-up Observing Program (CFOP) website where processed data and derived values such as radial velocities, masses, etc. can be made available to the broader community. This site will host data collected by observers during the Extended Mission and is the required repository for reduced datasets from follow-up program observers (using any telescope) funded by the Kepler Project. All observers with Kepler-related data are encouraged to make their data available through CFOP. Funding for travel, publication charges, etc. will be funded through the normal allocation made to all NASA Keck users, but this amount is capped at approximately $25k/team/semester.

B. Required Criteria for Key Projects

  1. Clear and well-defined sample of objects in support of a compelling scientific program aligned with broad exoplanet goals of the Kepler mission and NASA's strategic goals.
  2. The number of semesters and nights requested per semester should be clearly stated and justified. This request should also specify if the observing requests are time-constrained beyond the normal availability of the Kepler field, e.g. to measure the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect during a specific transit.
  3. The Keck telescopes will be scheduled for only whole or half nights for the purpose of this call. Proposers should discuss the efficiency of their program in terms of filling their proposed telescope time.
  4. Proposers should describe how their targets have previously been vetted or will be vetted using other facilities to ensure that Keck observations are used primarily to investigate either a) already confirmed planets or b) candidates studied in enough detail such that Keck is required as the last step in the process of validation.
  5. Proposals dealing with stellar or other areas of astrophysics using Kepler data will not be considered for Key Project status with the exception of programs to characterize the host stars of specific, known exoplanets (Goal 6, above).
  6. Demonstrated track record of appropriate and timely data reduction.
  7. Strong record of relevant publications and/or data releases.

C. Details of Key Project Proposals

Proposal packets must be written in 12-point font with 1-inch margins and are limited to:

All proposals requesting time must fill out a Keck Observatory Cover Sheet for 2013B. Successful Key Project teams will have to fill out the cover sheet for each subsequent semester to enable scheduling of their observations.

D. Single Semester Observations

We anticipate that there will be considerable interest in using a variety of Keck instruments to follow-up individual Kepler objects. Single semester proposals for these activities will be limited to 1-2 nights/semester and should be submitted following the procedures for normal Keck proposals detailed in Section Ib.ii. These Kepler proposals can be for any field of astrophysics, not limited to exoplanets, but must show strategic relevance as required of all NASA Keck proposals.

Ib.ii. General Proposals for the Use of Keck Time to Observe Kepler Targets

Starting in 2011A and continuing in future semesters, there will be limited time available on the Keck telescopes to make single semester observations of targets based on Kepler data. Due to the scheduling constraints imposed by the Key Science Kepler Project, the total amount of time available for the smaller single-semester proposals will be limited to no more than 2 nights on Keck I. However, there are no specific limitations on the number of nights on Keck II. All proposals for observing Kepler targets must follow the guidelines detailed below:

Ib.iii. Proposals to Observe Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

NASA strongly encourages proposals to observe comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), a recently discovered Oort Cloud comet with perihelion passage on Nov. 28, 2013. It is expected to become the most visible comet in recent years with a visual magnitude that might exceed -10. Proposals to observe comet ISON will compete on the basis of merit with other proposals submitted through the NASA TAC and must conform to standard Keck guidelines. Any data acquired on comet ISON through time awarded by the NASA TAC will be promptly released via the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) for community use.

Although the plans for the 2013/2014 apparition of comet ISON are still developing, at this time measurements leading to increased understanding of this dynamically new Oort cloud comet's orbit, its nucleus size, density, strength, and rotation rate, its composition, its coma and tail morphology, and its evolution over time as it passes through the inner solar system are highly encouraged. Cometary areas of interest that have been historically addressed by Keck include but are not limited to measurements of coma structure and variability, abundances and rotational temperatures of molecular species, isotopic ratios, and compositional evolution through perihelion.

Note that proposers must disclose any time that their team has proposed or will propose for through other institutional access (see section Ic for a list of institutions with Keck access). Given that other ground-based telescopes will be regularly monitoring this bright comet (ex: CSHELL on the IRTF), proposals must highlight how their observations are uniquely suited to Keck, its instruments, and its capabilities (ex: spectral resolution, ability to observe multiple spectral transitions simultaneously, etc.).

The useful Keck Comet ISON viewing times in Semester 2013B will be for the last 3 hours before sunrise from 10 Oct 2013 - 10 November 2013; for the last 3 hours before sunrise from 24 Dec 2013 - 01 Jan 2014; and for the first half night after sunset on 15 Jan - 31 Jan 2014. The comet will approach within 2 solar radii of the solar photosphere on 28 Nov 2013, with the potential to survive, or to be disrupted or destroyed during perihelion passage. Proposers should note that observations requiring instrumentation on Keck I cannot be made until after perihelion passage due to the eastern elevation limit of Keck I. Should Comet ISON not survive perihelion passage, any post-perihelion awarded time will be reassigned.

The figure above (courtesy of Ron Vervack, JHU APL) shows the comet's observability from the 10m Keck telescope. From this figure, it can be determined that ISON is available for only a few hours after sunset before and for about one month after (until 05 Jan 2014) its perihelion passage.

Proposals to Match Keck 2 Comet Nights Encouraged

We recognize that until early January 2014 ISON will be observable for only 2-3 hours per night. Thus we will entertain proposals of 1/4 night duration for the sole purpose of ISON observations. We will attempt to match these observations with science programs proposed by other NASA observers. For this purpose we encourage proposals for NASA-relevant science that could be used to match these partial nights. We anticipate that NIRSPEC and perhaps NIRC2 on the Keck 2 telescope will be the main instruments proposed for comet observations. Proposals that can be scheduled with matching instrument requests on the nights of comet observations are highly encouraged. Please note that NIRSPAO cannot be scheduled on the same night as NIRSPEC.

Ib.iv. 2013B NIRSPEC Availability

WMKO anticipates NIRSPEC being unavailable for science due to a service mission from August through mid-September with a possible need to extend the service mission to mid-October. Observers should not apply for NIRSPEC time during the first 6 weeks of the semester and should understand the instrument may not be available for a further four weeks, until mid-October. Further information will be available before the TAC meets, although not before the proposal due dates.

Ic. Procedure

The opportunity to propose as Principal Investigators (PIs) for the NASA time on the Keck Telescopes is open to all U.S.-based astronomers ("U.S.-based astronomers" have their principal affiliation at a U.S. institution).

Proposals from PIs, or any Co-Is, who have access to the Keck telescopes through other means (the University of California, Caltech, Yale, Keck Observatory, Swinburne, and the University of Hawaii) should indicate in their proposals specifically how they are using any other Keck telescope time they have been awarded within the last two years for the proposed project and why their research requires time beyond the allocations available through their institutions. The TAC may use access to non-NASA Keck time as one of the factors in determining the final grades and rankings of the proposals. For example, the ability to achieve the science objectives with and without the NASA time could be either a positive or a negative factor. If the NASA time provides only a small fraction (<<50%) of the observing time needed to complete a project, the TAC might conclude that the NASA time is not crucial to the completion of scientific goals and such a proposal may receive a lower ranking in comparison to a proposal which completes its goals within the NASA allocation. However, if the PI can leverage access to NASA and non-NASA time to address science goals aligned with NASA's strategic goals that could not be addressed with NASA time alone, the proposal could receive a higher ranking. In the case of two proposals ranked equally on scientific and technical merit, the TAC might use access to additional Keck time (as described above) as one of the factors in determining the final ranking. Other factors which the TAC may use are listed below in the specific points which proposals must address.

To maximize the scientific return of NASA's investment in Keck, NExScI will, when possible, work with other TACs which distribute federally-funded Keck time to ensure that the same proposal submitted to two different TACs in the same semester is not allocated more total time than needed in the judgment of the respective TACs to conduct the proposed science.

Proposals received by the application deadline will be reviewed and ranked by the NASA Keck TAC. The TAC will then submit their recommendations to the selecting official, the NExScI Executive Director, for final selection. NExScI will then coordinate these final selections with the Keck Observatory for scheduling.

The scientific case for observing time should establish three things:

  1. Outline the scientific problem(s) or question(s) toward whose solution the observations are requested, and place these questions in the larger scientific context.
  2. Show how the measurements requested will be used to illuminate these questions or problems.
  3. Demonstrate how the proposed science fits into NASA's strategic goals for its Keck time as listed above. (Please note that a numerical grade will be assigned for strategic relevance.)

The technical case should demonstrate that the proposed measurements are technically feasible, given the performance of the proposed instrument(s), in the time requested and that the proposal team has the requisite expertise to make the observations and reduce the data in a timely manner. Mission support proposals must include additional supporting materials as stated in the next section. The number of target objects required should be justified.

All applications must include complete lists of the objects to be observed, their magnitudes and their approximate equatorial coordinates (sufficient to determine scheduling within the semester). Applications without such lists will be rejected.

Specific points which must be addressed include:

II. Proposals in Support of NASA Space Missions

The NASA-Keck Telescope Allocation Committee (TAC) occasionally receives observing proposals stating that the proposed observations, to a greater or lesser degree, provide critical and timely support for approved NASA space missions. The TAC accepts these Mission Support Proposals and evaluates them on the basis of their scientific merit just as any proposal. However, the NASA Keck selecting official, the NExScI Executive Director, will take the TAC evaluation and programmatic concerns into consideration in making the final time assignments.

All proposals submitted under the mission support category must include all of the following:

These items must either be included in the proposal package or sent directly to the NASA Keck Operations Scientist, Dr. Dawn Gelino ( by the proposal due date. Omission of any of these items will eliminate a proposal from consideration.

III. Multi-Semester Proposals and Applying for Partial Nights

Principal investigators are allowed to submit proposals that span up to 4 semesters. The intent of allowing PIs this option is to reduce workload on both PIs and the NASA Keck TAC for long-term programs. The NASA Keck TAC will be instructed to consider these proposals in light of all of the criteria that apply for single semester proposals, in addition to the following considerations:

In considering multi-semester proposals, the TAC may recommend accepting the proposal in its entirety, for some subset of the proposed semesters, or reject it outright.

NASA has allocated a number of nights (outside of those for the general call noted above) for a Kepler Key Science program. Due to this strategic allocation, only programs ranked very highly in both scientific relevance and strategic importance will be considered for scheduling on Keck I during the months when the Kepler fields are visible (June- September). However, programs that can match half-nights in the HIRES mode on Keck I in May (semester A) and October (semester B) are strongly encouraged and should indicate this as a scheduling option. Note that half nights outside of these months are not encouraged.

Proposers are advised to bear in mind that proposals requesting less than full nights must be scientifically and technically justified and can ordinarily be accommodated only if they can be combined with another selected NASA proposal requiring the same instrument in the same configuration. Observing modes which require substantial observatory support (e.g., LGS) are much more difficult to schedule as 0.5 night observations. Due to the extreme difficulty in scheduling the telescope in smaller than 0.5 night increments, any program requesting such increments will be counted as 0.5 nights per calendar night and only scheduled if the program can be combined with another selected NASA proposal requiring the same instrument in the same configuration. Runs of more than several contiguous nights are also difficult to arrange and must be scientifically and technically justified.

IV. Publication Acknowledgement

All publications based on data acquired with the Keck telescopes and for use of the Keck Observatory Archive should include the following acknowledgement:

"This work was supported by a NASA Keck PI Data Award, administered by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory from telescope time allocated to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the agency's scientific partnership with the California Institute of Technology and the University of California. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain."

Please send a citation for any paper using this acknowledgement to the NASA Keck Operations Scientist, Dr. Dawn Gelino (

V. Target of Opportunity Proposals

The NASA TAC does consider target-of-opportunity (ToO) proposals. However, proposers should bear in mind that ToO observations are very difficult to schedule and will usually require rescinding OR reducing the allocation of an already-scheduled NASA observer. ToO proposals for events likely to happen during a single semester (e.g. gamma-ray bursts, supernovae) must be submitted during the regular submission cycle so that the proposed observations may be considered by the TAC and potential scheduling opportunities can be discussed.

Only proposals that fit the case of a ToO observation of a truly extraordinary opportunity that could not have been anticipated prior to the regular proposal deadline may be submitted outside of the regular submission cycle by e-mail or FAX to:

Dr. Dawn Gelino
NASA Exoplanet Science Institute
770 S. Wilson Ave., MC 100-22
Pasadena, CA 91125
Fax: 626/397-7181

In general, NASA ToO proposals are only scheduled during NASA nights and so the chances of a ToO being accepted and scheduled are much higher for instruments with high NASA usage. In the last few years, HIRES and NIRSPEC are commonly scheduled on NASA nights for at least 10 nights in a semester and all other instruments for much less. Observing modes which require substantial observatory support (e.g., LGS) are much more difficult to schedule as ToO observations.

Note that all ToO proposals must meet the strategic relevance guidelines described above.

VI. Application Procedures

Application Procedures

To submit your proposal, please follow the guidelines outlined on the Application Procedures page, and submit your proposal via the online submission page. Proposals are due on Thursday, March 14, 2013 at 4 pm PDT.

Proposal Support

Subject to the availability of funds, NASA will financially support the programs assigned time through this call for proposals. Principal investigators of programs assigned time will receive limited research and travel support contingent upon NASA Headquarters funding. Funding awards will be determined through formulaic means. NExScI will manage the Keck PI Data Awards and will contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to administer the disbursement of most of the funds. The funding instrument used by JPL will in most cases be in the form of a Research Support Agreement (RSA) depending on the size of the award and the nature of the PI's home institution. An RSA is a simple Fixed Price, Advance Paid, subcontract provided through JPL that is used for basic research funding where scientific reports and technical data are the only deliverables. RSAs can be awarded to educational and non-profit institutions. JPL is unable to issue grants. Proposers should not include any budget information in the proposal.

The only reporting necessary for RSAs is a final "end of contract" report outlining the work done and listing publications from the research. This report is required and is not optional. Failure to submit a final report in a timely manner may be grounds for rejection of observing proposals in subsequent years.

VII. Data Proprietary Periods

For a complete description of available instruments, see the Observing at WMKO page. Note that starting in 2013A, data taken with ALL instruments on the Keck telescopes will be included in the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) with a default proprietary period of 18 months. Proposers must indicate the desired proprietary period on the WMKO cover sheet that is submitted with the proposal. Requests for extensions of this default proprietary period MUST be included in the proposal and be scientifically justified. All extensions must be approved by the NASA selecting official, NExScI Director, Dr. Charles Beichman.

VIII. Remote Observing

NASA Keck observers have direct access to two Remote Observing Facilities (ROFs) for their Keck observations. These ROFs are located at Caltech (Pasadena, CA) and at Yale University (New Haven, CT). Please note that other remote observing facilities are also available and NASA users with access to these facilities can use these; use of the Caltech or Yale ROF is not required of NASA Keck users wanting to observe remotely. NASA Keck observers who do want to make use of either the Caltech or the Yale ROF are required to follow the procedure described here.

Web Curator and NExScI Cognizant Official: Dr. Dawn Gelino